Similarly to textual sources, images can be "read" for their deeper meaning and the works themselves can be viewed as information. This sort of visual analysis requires looking for the ideas underpinning the work and reflecting on your experience with it.
Some questions to ask yourself as you look at a work:
Try it yourself!
This site from the University of Maryland walks you through the process of observing and then analyzing the content of an image using a political cartoon by Dr. Seuss as an example.
Shan Goshorn - A Native American artist, Goshorn taught herself the intricate process of traditional basket-weaving by analyzing the construction of existing baskets.
Mel Chin - Chin's artwork Revival Field uses science and practice to remove heavy metals from the ground via plants that naturally absorb these toxic materials.
Hans Haacke - Haacke is known for doing in-depth research into various topics, then creating an artwork comprised of the research itself. His works include investigating slumlords and examining coerced sterilizations of factory workers, among others.
Guerrilla Girls - The Guerrilla Girls are an ever-rotating band of women who use factual information to expose discrimination and injustice in the art world.
Carey Young - Young creates works that use the chemical composition of her body (using her weight as a starting point) to assign a monetary value to herself based on the market rate for each element.